Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. Soils. During the 8th and 9th centuries BC, the Phoenicians became the first of the many civilizations to leave their mark on Tunisia. This valley was once the granary of ancient Rome and has remained to this day the richest grain-producing region of Tunisia. Recovered for Spain in 1535, Tunisia is finally brought under Ottoman control in 1574. The Phoenicians founded Carthage in Tunisia in the 8th century BC. Large plains border the eastern coasts; south of Sousse lies Al-Sāḥil (Sahel) and south of Gabès is Al-Jifārah (Gefara) Plain. The most notable immigration was that of the Spanish Moors (Muslims), which began after the fall of Sevilla (Seville), Spain, as a result of the Reconquista in 1248 and which turned into a veritable exodus in the early 17th century. See if your geographic knowledge points north or south in this journey through Africa. A Brief History of Tunisia Muslim Conquest. 11,274,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. As a result, some 200,000 Spanish Muslims settled in the area of Tunis, in the Majardah valley, and on the Sharīk Peninsula in the north, bringing with them their urban culture and more advanced agricultural and irrigation techniques. Tunisia is the smallest of the Maghrib states and consequently the most cohesive. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As in other countries of this arid region, access to water is a major concern. The final blow to Tunisia’s sovereignty came at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when Britain acquiesced to France’s control of Tunisia. Popular pages. Saved by Emperor Reynard IV. Conscription was also introduced, to the great dismay of the peasantry. The precipitation also greatly varies, as the north receives significantly more rainfall than the south. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. Kenneth Perkins' book traces the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Carthage Must Be Destroyed:… by Richard Miles. Between the limestone peaks of the central Tunisian Dorsale and the mountains of the Northern Tell—which include the sandstone ridges of the Kroumirie Mountains in the northwest that reach elevations of 3,000 feet (900 metres)—and the Mogods, a mountain range running along the deeply indented coastline to the north, lies the Majardah (Medjerda) River valley, formed by a series of ancient lake basins covered with alluvium. Its coastline on the Mediterranean Sea made it the subject of many empires throughout history. Tunisia is one of the … Drainage. Harvests vary as a result, being poor in dry years. Tunisia’s people are renowned for their conviviality and easygoing approach to daily life, qualities that Albert Memmi captured in his 1955 autobiographical novel Pillar of Salt: We shared the ground floor of a shapeless old building, a sort of two-room apartment. Continued civil disturbances and corruption prompted the British and French to force the bey to issue the Fundamental Pact (ʿAhd al-Amān; September 1857), a civil rights charter modeled on the Ottoman rescript of 1839. Saharan influences give rise to the sirocco, a seasonal hot, blasting wind from the south that can have a serious drying effect on vegetation. Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1881 and remained under French rule until March 1956 when it gained independence, followed by the promulgation of a new constitution on 1 June 1959. Category:History of Tunisia | Military Wiki | Fandom. The summer is hot and dry in the north, and the winter is mild and consists of frequent rains. From the Phoenicians to the French, we've got, (nearly) all of them nailed. This great ethnic diversity is still seen in the variety of Tunisian family names. QUICK ADD. Tunisia, country of North Africa. Farther south there is a series of chott (or shaṭṭ; salty lake) depressions. Aḥmad Bey, who ruled from 1837 to 1855, was an avowed modernizer and reformer. The Romans ruled and settled in North Africa until the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell and... From Arab Center to French Protectorate. At night, each locked himself in his room, but in the morning, life was always communal. The history of Tunisia reveals this rich past where different successive Mediterranean cultures had a strong presence. Ruins of the ancient baths at Carthage, Tunisia. Like much of North Africa, Tunisia's history is one littered with conquests that completely changed the country's path. A single major city, Tunis, dominated the countryside both politically and culturally. Book Description. Muslim Andalusians migrated to the area after having been forced out of Spain during the Reconquista, particularly following the defeat of the Muslim kingdom of Granada in 1492. From that time until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, Tunisian rulers had to placate the larger powers while working to strengthen the state from within. . In 1830, at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. The next bey, Muḥammad (1855–59), tried to ignore Europe, but this was no longer possible. Ḥusayn Bey even accepted the idea that Tunisian princes would rule the cities of Constantine and Oran. pop. To the south of the Tunisian Dorsale lies a hilly region known as the Haute Steppe (High Steppes) in the west and the Basse Steppe (Low Steppes) in the east. The major drainage feature of the north is the Majardah River, the country’s only perennially flowing stream, which cuts the Majardah valley before emptying into the Gulf of Tunis, near the site of ancient Carthage. This book examines the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on political, social, economic and cultural developments. The Tunisian Dorsale, or High Tell, a southwest-northeast–trending mountain range that is an extension of the Saharan Atlas (Atlas Saharien) of Algeria, tapers off in the direction of the Sharīk (Cape Bon) Peninsula in the northeast, south of the Gulf of Tunis. Finally, from the 16th to the 19th century, the Ottomans brought their own blend of Asian and European traditions. When the principal minister, Muṣṭafā Khaznadār (who had served from the earliest days of Aḥmad Bey’s reign), attempted to squeeze more taxes out of the hard-pressed peasants, the countryside rose in a revolt (1864). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Paperback; NOOK Book; Hardcover; Tunisia - History. Tunisia is briefly taken in 1534 by the most famous corsair of them all, Khair ed-Din (known to the Europeans as Barbarossa). Tunisia is characterized by moderate relief. These have elevations ranging from about 600 to 1,500 feet (180 to 460 metres) and are crossed by secondary ranges trending north-south. Scorpions are found in all regions; among dangerous snakes are the horned viper and the cobra. History First Peoples. Is the northernmost point of Africa farther north than the southernmost point of Europe? By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for “new city”) dominated much of the western Mediterranean. Tunisia has a very unique location. Stone-age to the modern age in two and a half minutes? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This is a whole app is very easy to use. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). $5 - $10; $10 - $25; $25 - $50; Over $50; Formats. Thereafter, the vulnerable beylik of Tunis found itself surrounded by two larger powers—France and the Ottoman Empire—both of which had designs on Tunisia. Tunisia is bounded by Algeria to the west and southwest, by Libya to the southeast, and by the Mediterranean Sea to the east and north. Independence for Tunisia. Relief. Book Description. Other cities include Sfax (Ṣafāqis), Sousse (Sūsah), and Gabès (Qābis) on the fertile coast and Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) and El-Kef (Al-Kāf) in the arid interior. The highest mountain, Mount Chambi (Al-Shaʿnabī), located near the centre of the Algerian border, rises to 5,066 feet (1,544 metres), while Mount Zaghwān (Zaghouan), about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Tunis, reaches 4,249 feet (1,295 metres). By 1574, Tunisia was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire, whose control of the region, always tenuous, had all but dissolved by the 19th century. This changes southward to semiarid conditions on the steppes and to desert in the far south. History. Berber, the earlier language of the Maghrib, survived in Tunisia in only a few pockets, mainly in the extreme south. In the dry south, moreover, they are often also saline because of excessive evaporation. Carthage fought a series of wars with its rival, Rome. By the beginning of the 19th century, virtually all of its inhabitants spoke Arabic. It was the Phoenicians that first founded Tunisia’s most famous city of Carthage, which would eventually rival Rome as the most dominant city on the Mediterranean Sea. Most visited articles. Grid View Grid. The scheme, however, had no chance of success and was soon abandoned. Register Military. The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia. Aside from these and from the plains of the Haute Steppe region, where some clay soils of medium fertility may be found, soils in the rest of the country tend to be rocky or sandy. The most famous people of the ancient world to mark the area of modern-day Tunisia were the Phoenicians, who settled here in the 1st millennium BCE and went on to found their legendary capital of Carthage. Search This wiki This wiki All wikis | Sign In Don't have an account? Ancient Origins articles related to Tunisia in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. Throughout its recorded history, the physical features and environment of the land of Tunisia have remained fairly constant, although during ancient times more abundant forests grew in the north, and earlier in prehistory the Sahara to the south was not an arid desert. The history of early Tunisia and its indigenous inhabitants, the Berbers, is obscure prior to the founding of Carthage by seafaring Phoenicians from Tyre (in present-day Lebanon) in the 9th century BC .A great mercantile state developed at Carthage (near modern-day Tunis), which proceeded to dominate the western Mediterranean world. Travel. This warmth, joined with the country’s renowned hospitality and cuisine, has contributed greatly to Tunisia’s growing popularity as a destination for tourists from throughout Europe and the Americas. However, enemies from within and European intrigues from without conspired to force him from office. The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. 1 - 20 of 46 results. The app cover whole Tunisia history from Mesolithic era to Parliamentary system. The Glory Days of Carthage. Though sympathetic to the need for reforms, Muḥammad was too weak either to control his own government or to keep the European powers at bay. Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on Kairouan. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A mean annual rainfall of about 60 inches (1,520 mm) occurs in the Kroumirie Mountains in northwestern Tunisia, making it the wettest region in North Africa, as compared with less than 4 inches (100 mm) at Tozeur (Tawzar) in the southwest. After achieving independence in 1956, Tunisia pursued a progressive social agenda and sought to modernize its economy under two long-serving presidents, Habib Bourguiba and Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. Eugene Roe; Project maintenance. Culture of Tunisia - Wikipedia In 1956, … Tunisia was called IfrÄ«qiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. Tunisie, officially Republic of Tunisia, republic (2015 est. However, Tunisia remained an authoritarian state with an all-powerful ruling party and no significant institutions of representative government. His reforms negatively affected the already stagnant economy, which led to greater debt, higher taxes, and increased unrest in the countryside. One name looms above all in Tunisia's history: Carthage. After the death of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq, his successor, ʿAlī, was forced to introduce administrative, judicial, and financial reforms that the French government considered useful. Tunisia. (For a discussion of political changes in Tunisia in 2011, see Jasmine Revolution.). Updates? Following the decline of Rome, the region was ruled briefly by the Vandals and then the Byzantine Empire before being conquered by the Arabs in 647 ce. More easily controlled from within than any other Maghrib country, Tunisia was also more open to the influence of people and ideas from abroad. Add to Wishlist. It was a … Tunisia. Temperatures are moderated by the sea, being less extreme at Sousse on the coast, for example, than at Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) inland. The population of Tunisia is essentially Arab Berber. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French that they had no intention of colonizing Tunisia. The area was ruled by a succession of Islamic dynasties and empires until coming under French colonial rule in the late 19th century. In time the Carthaginians built an empire in the Mediterranean. Aḥmad abolished slavery and took other modernizing steps intended to bring Tunisia more in line with Europe, but he also exposed his country to Europe’s infinitely greater economic and political power. The extreme south is largely sandy desert, much of it part of the Great Eastern Erg of the Sahara. This provoked an uprising in southern Tunisia during which France attacked and captured Sousse in July 1881, took Kairouan in October, and seized Gafsa and Gabès in November. Independence under the Neo-Destour Party (1956–2011), Factional tension, compromise, and a new constitution, Dissatisfaction with the political establishment and the election of Kais Saied.