[53] They were taken to Paris. [88], The Count of Artois ruled as Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom until his brother's arrival in Paris on 3 May. Louis then intended to set off to the Kingdom of Naples. [23] Louis Stanislas' elder brother, the Dauphin Louis Auguste, succeeded their grandfather as King Louis XVI. À la succession de Boson, sous le règne de Louis (890-928), on connait :. Louis had no children, so upon his death the crown passed to his brother, Charles X. This law awarded the regency to Louis Charles' nearest male relative in France (at that time the Count of Provence), and after him, the Duke of Orleans, thus bypassing the Count of Artois. [111], On 29 June, a deputation of five from among the members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Peers approached Wellington about putting a foreign prince on the throne of France. [13] In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: Duke of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Perche, and Count of Senoches. [72], Louis XVIII encouraged his niece to write her memoirs, as he wished them to be used as Bourbon propaganda. She married Louis Stanislas Xavier de Bourbon, Comte de Provence (1755-1824), at … [58], In January 1792, the Legislative Assembly declared that all of the émigrés were traitors to France. The duchy was given to enhance Louis Stanislas' prestige. [73], It was very soon after their arrival that Louis and Marie-Thérèse learned of the death of Tsar Paul I. Louis hoped that Paul's successor, Alexander I, would repudiate his father's banishment of the Bourbons, which he later did. [36], An Assembly of Notables (the members consisted of magistrates, mayors, nobles and clergy) was convened in February 1787 to ratify the financial reforms sought by the Controller-General of Finance Charles Alexandre de Calonne. I am not sure if that story is apocryphal but it does indicate how out of touch with what was going on around him. The government of the Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy, unlike the Ancien Régime, which was absolutist. [31], In 1780, Anne Nompar de Caumont, Countess of Balbi, entered the service of Marie Joséphine. The ministry hoped for moderate deputies, but the electorate voted almost exclusively for ultra-royalists, resulting in the so-called Chambre introuvable. Louis XVIII was the last French monarch, and the only one after 1774, to die while still ruling. [64] Louis XVIII moved to Blankenburg in the Duchy of Brunswick after his departure from Verona. In July 1807, Louis boarded a Swedish frigate bound for Stockholm, bringing with him only the Duke of Angoulême. [73] After an arduous journey from Jelgava,[74] he and his family took up residence in the years 1801-1804 at the Łazienki Palace in Warsaw, a city which was then part of the province of South Prussia. On 22 October 1781, Marie Antoinette gave birth to the Dauphin Louis Joseph. Louis XVIII admitted the Count of Artois and his nephews the Dukes of Angoulême and of Berry to the Royal Council in May 1814, upon its establishment. M. le comte de Mirabeau, député d'Aix en Provence (1789) M. Mirabeau l'ainé (1789) Vendidit hic auro patriam, dominumque furenter deposuit (1789) [68] In the winter of 1798–1799, Louis XVIII wrote a biography of Marie Antoinette titled Réflexions historiques sur Marie Antoinette. [135] Around the same time as the “law of the two votes”, Louis began to receive visits every Wednesday from a lady named Zoé Talon, and ordered that nobody should disturb him while he was with her. Procès-Verbal de l'Assemblée Générale des Gens du Tiers-État du Pays et Comté de Provence, convoquée, par autorité & permission de Sa Majesté, en la ville d'Aix, au 30 Avril 1789 Aix, des Imprimeries de Gibelin David & Emeric-David, Avocats, Imprimeur du Roi & du Pays, 1789 There was, however, a major underlying problem for the Bourbons: Louis XVIII had failed to purge the military of its Bonapartist troops. À la suite du départ de la cour de Versailles pour Paris après les journées des 5 et 6 octobre 1789, le comte de Provence est installé au Petit Luxembourg. The manifesto, known as the "Declaration of Verona", was Louis XVIII's attempt to introduce the French people to his politics. Procès-verbal de l'assemblée de nosseigneurs des États généraux du pays et comté de Provence Volume 1788: 368 pages + “règlement”, in good condition for its age. After Marshal Michel Ney defected to Napoleon on March 17, 1815, the King fled to Ghent. Louis chose the Duke of Richelieu to be his new Prime Minister. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Declaration of Verona beckoned France back into the arms of the monarchy, "which for fourteen centuries was the glory of France". [33] Louis Stanislas commissioned a pavilion for his mistress on a parcel of land at Versailles which became known as the Parc Balbi. Vie quotidienne – Page 1789 : toute l'actualité sur France Bleu. [46] The Count of Provence favoured a stalwart position against the Third Estate and its demands for tax reform. [34], Louis Stanislas lived a quiet and sedentary lifestyle at this point, not having a great deal to do since his self-proclaimed political exclusion in 1774. Louis XVIII ruled as king for slightly less than a decade. Anti-Napoleonic sentiment was high in Southern France, and this was prominently displayed in the White Terror, which saw the purge of all important Napoleonic officials from government, along with the execution or assassination of others. [124] The government issued a proclamation of amnesty to the “traitors” in January 1816, but such trials as had already begun took their course. Significant civil and political events by year. Biographers disagree about the reason. [113] The King entered Paris on 8 July to a boisterous reception: the Tuileries Palace gardens were thronged with bystanders, and, according to the Duke of Wellington, the acclamation of the crowds there were so loud during that evening that he could not converse with the King. However the Bourbon succession was still in doubt. [97], Louis XVIII signed the Treaty of Paris on 30 May 1814. France also had to pay a war indemnity of 700 million francs to the Allies. "The Bourbon Army, 1815-1830.". Louis XVIII, also called (until 1795) Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, Comte (count) de Provence, (born Nov. 17, 1755, Versailles, Fr.—died Sept. 16, 1824, Paris), king of France by title from 1795 and in fact from 1814 to 1824, except for the interruption of the Hundred Days, during which Napoleon attempted to recapture his empire. [18] The Dauphin and Louis Stanislas did not enjoy a harmonious relationship and often quarrelled,[19] as did their wives. Montgaillard, Jean Gabriel Maurice Roques, Comte de. On 19 March, the army stationed outside Paris defected to Bonaparte, leaving the city vulnerable to attack. Louis Stanislas was left in a political limbo that he called "a gap of 12 years in my political life". Moreover, being surrounded at Jelgava with many old courtiers, he attempted to recreate the court life of Versailles, re-establishing various of the former court ceremonies, including the lever and coucher (ceremonies that accompanied waking and bedding, respectively). Taxation was to be voted on by the chambers. Louis XVIII assured the French that the unpopular taxes on tobacco, wine and salt would be abolished when he was restored, but he failed to do so, which led to rioting in Bordeaux. The Royal Family was grief-stricken[132] and Louis broke an ancient tradition by attending his nephew's funeral, whereas previous kings of France could not have any association with death. [50], The Count of Provence decided to remain at Versailles. [122][123] Louis's government executed Napoleon's Marshal Ney in December 1815 for treason. [83], The Count of Artois did not join the court-in-exile in Hartwell, preferring to continue his frivolous life in London. [118] On 14 July, the ministry dissolved the units of the army deemed "rebellious". 2 offers from $16.55. Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy, excelling in the classics. Catholicism was to be the official religion of France. [54] In March 1791, the National Assembly created a law outlining the regency of Louis Charles in case his father died while he was still too young to reign. Comme son frère aîné, il ne se sent plus assez libre et prépare un plan d'évasion (il en prépare deux car son épouse sortira de Paris par un autre moyen). He married Garsende de Sabran in July 1193. On behalf of the Allies, Austria agreed to send a force to the Kingdom of Naples to depose Murat in February 1815, when it was learned that Murat corresponded with Napoleon, which was explicitly forbidden by a recent treaty. When the King and Queen were executed in 1793, he declared himself regent for his nephew, the dauphin Louis XVII, at whose death, in June 1795, he proclaimed himself Louis XVIII. [90], Napoleon's senate called Louis XVIII to the throne on the condition that he would accept a constitution that entailed recognition of the Republic and the Empire, a bicameral parliament elected every year, and the tri-colour flag of the aforementioned regimes. (A parlement was responsible for ratifying the King's edicts; each province had its own parlement, but the Parlement of Paris was the most significant of all.) After Napoleon’s defeats in 1813, Louis issued a manifesto in which he promised to recognize some of the results of the Revolution in a restored Bourbon regime. The Prince of Wales (the future George IV of Great Britain) was very charitable to the exiled Bourbons. He desperately wanted her to marry her first cousin, Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, the son of the Count of Artois. found: Lettre de M. le c. de Caraman, commandant en Provence, à M. le c. de Mirabeau et la réronse [i.e. [14], Louis Stanislas travelled about France more than other members of the Royal Family, who rarely left the Île-de-France. [84] That same winter, Louis suffered a particularly severe attack of gout, which was a recurring problem for him at Hartwell, and he had to take to a wheelchair.[85]. Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (a Napoleonic marshal) was savagely assassinated, and his remains thrown into the Rhône River. He kept his promises. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. comtes de Provence 890-908 : Thibert, dit aussi Teutberg d'Avignon; comte d'Arles 879-895 : Théobald d'Arles († 895), marié à Berthe, fille de Lothaire II. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Louis-XVIII, Château de Versailles - Biography of Louis XVIII. There was rioting in Brittany, Provence, Burgundy and Béarn in reaction to their arrest. The clergy also joined the provincial cause, and condemned Brienne's tax reforms. As a constitutional monarch, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced substantially by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution. The electorate was limited to the richest men in France, most of whom had supported Napoleon. This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 23:10. [24] As eldest brother of the King, Louis Stanislas received the title Monsieur. Talleyrand tendered his resignation on 20 September. In light of this, Marie-Thérèse decided to wait a while longer before reuniting with her uncle. On 26 February 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte escaped his island prison of Elba and embarked for France. [114], Although the Ultra faction of returning exiles wanted revenge and were eager to punish the usurpers and restore the old regime, the new king rejected that advice. The Queen refused to leave her friend behind, creating an unpleasant situation that rivalled the wedding in notoriety. [119], In August, elections for the Chamber of Deputies returned unfavourable results for Talleyrand. She had to pay no war indemnity, and the occupying armies of the Sixth Coalition withdrew immediately from French soil. He also wished the Duchy of Parma to be restored to the Parma branch of the Bourbons, and not to the former Empress Marie-Louise of France, as was being suggested by the Allies. A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May. He attempted to gain admittance to the King's council in 1774, but failed. Louis Stanislas was the only notable to vote to increase the size of the Third Estate. In foreign policy he removed Talleyrand, and continued most of Napoleon's policies in peaceful fashion. réponse], 1789: p. 2 (C. de Caraman) 1755-1789 [39] : Louis-Stanislas-Xavier de France. The opinions expressed in the declaration were largely those of the Antoine de Bésiade, Count of Avaray, Louis's closest advisor in exile. ; 905-928 : Hugues d'Arles († 947), fils du précédent.En 928, il devient roi d'Italie et donne le comté d'Arles à son frère Boson. Louis XVI and Brienne took a hostile stance against this rejection, and Louis XVI had to implement a "bed of justice" (Lit de justice), which automatically registered an edict in the Parlement of Paris, to ratify the desired reforms. "From Exile to the Throne: The Europeanization of Louis XVIII." Wellington rejected their pleas outright, declaring that "[Louis is] the best way to preserve the integrity of France"[112] and ordered the delegation to espouse King Louis' cause. [35] In the early 1780s, he also incurred huge debts totalling 10 million livres, which his brother Louis XVI paid. [59] The monarchy of France was abolished by the National Convention on 21 September 1792. Louis XVIII was not particularly worried by Bonaparte's excursion, as such small numbers of troops could be easily overcome. Brienne attempted to salvage Calonne's reforms, but ultimately failed to convince the notables to approve them. To be eligible for membership in the Chamber of Deputies, one had to pay over 1,000 francs per year in tax, and be over the age of forty. His wife gave birth to a posthumous son in September, Henry, Duke of Bordeaux,[132] nicknamed Dieudonné (God-given) by the Bourbons because he was thought to have secured the future of the dynasty. Prime Minister of France. He instead called for continuity and reconciliation, and a search for peace and prosperity. However, the pregnancy ended in a miscarriage. Issu de la noblesse provençale, Mirabeau était le fils de l’économiste et philosophe Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau (1715-1789). Louis XVI gran… France's borders were now less extensive, being drawn back to their 1790 extent. The resulting Charte Constitutionnelle was adopted on June 4, 1814. [87] Louis, unable to walk, had sent the Count of Artois to France in January 1814 and issued letters patent appointing Artois Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom in the event of his being restored as king. [110] King Louis was worried that the counter-revolutionary element sought revenge. Between 1795 and 1814 Louis wandered throughout Europe, sojourning in Prussia, England, and Russia, promoting the royalist cause, however hopeless it seemed after Napoleon’s proclamation as emperor in 1804. Procès-verbal de l'assemblée de nosseigneurs des États généraux du pays et comté de Provence Volume 1788 : 368 pages + règlement en bonne état pour l'age. The legislature, though, had a strong right-wing, royalist majority. Impr. [121] Louis publicly deplored such illegal acts, but vehemently supported the prosecution of those marshals of the army who had helped Napoleon in the Hundred Days. Hereditary peerage was re-established by the ministry at Louis' behest. The Count of Provence urged the King to act strongly against the declaration, while the King's popular minister Jacques Necker aimed at reaching a compromise with the new assembly. His father transferred the County of Provence from his uncle Sancho to him in 1185. By this act, he also became a Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit. ... C’est à ce moment-là que Mirabeau, député de Provence, surnommé « l’Orateur du peuple », prononce cette phrase historique : « nous ne quitterons nos places que par la puissance des baïonnettes. Furthermore, Louis XVIII could not join the campaign against Napoleon in the south of France because he was suffering from another case of gout. He kept to the policy of minimizing Austria's role but reversed Napoleon's friendly overtures to Spain and the Ottomans, [115][116][117], The King's role in politics was voluntarily diminished; he assigned most of his duties to his council. Their property and titles were confiscated. He resigned from his post in August and was replaced by the Swiss magnate Jacques Necker. It was there that he, the Count of Artois, and the Condé princes proclaimed that their objective was to invade France. He was suffering from obesity, gout and gangrene, both dry and wet, in his legs and spine. However, having to live under less generous conditions than those enjoyed under Paul I, Louis XVIII decided to embark for England as soon as possible. Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, Madame de Marsan, Governess of the Children of France, as he was her favourite among his siblings. On 17 June, the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly, an Assembly not of the Estates, but of the people. Il vous suffit de naviguer et de choisir les produits qui vous intéressent en cliquant sur "Ajouter au panier". Berry was the only member of the family thought to be able to beget children. Richelieu was chosen because he was acceptable to Louis' family and to the reactionary Chamber of Deputies.[120]. They later apologised for their mistake. The Declaration of Hartwell was even more liberal than his Declaration of 1805, asserting that those who had served Napoleon or the Republic would not suffer repercussions for their acts, and that the original owners of the Biens nationaux (lands confiscated from the nobility and clergy during the Revolution) would be compensated for their losses. This led to mass desertions from the Bourbon armies to Bonaparte's. 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His reign was further marked by the formation of the Quintuple Alliance and a military intervention in Spain. John W. Rooney, Jr. and Alan J. Reinerman, "Continuity: French Foreign Policy of The First Restoration". Parma, however, was bestowed upon Empress Marie-Louise for life, and the Parma Bourbons were given the Duchy of Lucca until the death of Marie-Louise. [93] Louis responded with the Charter of 1814, which included many progressive provisions: freedom of religion, a legislature composed of a lower house styled the Chamber of Deputies[94] and an upper house, styled the Chamber of Peers. [105] That same day, Louis XVIII quit the capital with a small escort at midnight, first travelling to Lille, and then crossing the border into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, halting in Ghent. In fact, Murat never did actually write to Napoleon, but Louis, intent on restoring the Neapolitan Bourbons at any cost, had taken care to have such a correspondence forged, and subsidised the Austrian expedition with 25 million francs.[102]. With Louis XVIII using the title Comte d'Isle, named after his estate in Languedoc and at times spelt as Comte de Lille. [126], In November 1815, Louis's government had to sign another Treaty of Paris that formally ended Napoleon's Hundred Days. [62] Louis XVIII busied himself drafting a manifesto in response to Louis XVII's death. [60], Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. Louis Stanislas soon fell in love with his wife's new lady-in-waiting and installed her as his mistress,[32] which resulted in the couple's already limited affection for each other cooling entirely. The Archbishop of Toulouse, Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, acquired Calonne's ministry. Son of Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile. Provence's endorsement of the declaration was not well received in France, either by the ordinary citizens or by Louis XVI himself. Louis XVIII deceived his niece by telling her that her parents' last wishes were for her to marry Louis-Antoine, and she duly agreed to Louis XVIII's wishes. Vous pouvez sélectionner la quantité de chaque article, le montant se met à jour automatiquement. ", Holroyd, Richard. A circular gold-mounted composition box, the cover insert with a mother-of-pearl miniature representing a man on a horse, most probably the Count de Provence, future King Louis XVIII, Paris, 1788-1789 | Boîte ronde en composition montée en or avec miniature sur nacre représentant un cavalier, très probablement le comte de Provence, futur Roi Louis XVIII, Paris, 1788-1789 This repudiated his Declaration of Verona, promised to abolish conscription, retain the Napoleonic administrative and judicial system, reduce taxes, eliminate political prisons, and guarantee amnesty to everyone who did not oppose a Bourbon Restoration. Artois secured a castle for the court in exile in the Electorate of Trier (or "Treves"), where their maternal uncle, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, was the Archbishop-Elector. Les Comtes De Provence, Fruit Spread Four Red Fruits Organic, 12 Ounce 5.0 out of 5 stars 1. With little concern for the safety of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette, who were held captive in Paris, the Comte de Provence issued uncompromising counterrevolutionary manifestos, organized émigré associations, and sought the support of other monarchs in the fight against the Revolution. The name of Louis was bestowed because it was typical of a prince of France; Stanislas was chosen to honour his great-grandfather King Stanisław I of Poland; and Xavier was chosen for Saint Francis Xavier, whom his mother's family held as one of their patron saints. In April 1771, when he was 15, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, and his own independent household was established,[12] which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of his servants reached 390. [49] Artois and his family took up residence in Turin, the capital city of his father-in-law's Kingdom of Sardinia, with the family of the Princes of Condé. According to Wirydianna Fiszerowa, a contemporary living there at the time, the Prussian local authorities, wishing to honour the arrivals, had music played, but trying to give this a national and patriotic character, unwittingly chose La Marseillaise, the hymn of the First French Republic with unflattering allusions to both Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. This provided the Count of Provence, who abhorred the radical reforms proposed by Calonne, his long-awaiting opportunity to establish himself in politics. [28][29] However, Louis Stanislas did not remain heir to the throne much longer. On 8 May, two of the leading members of the Parlement of Paris were arrested. [6] When the Sixth Coalition finally defeated Napoleon in 1814, Louis XVIII was placed in what he, and the French royalists, considered his rightful position. After serving for some years in the West Indies Maurice de Roques returned to France. [42] The Parlement de Paris recommended that the Estates should be the same as they were at the last assembly, in 1614 (this would mean that the clergy and nobility would have more representation than the Third Estate). [25] Louis XVI granted Louis Stanislas revenues from the Duchy of Alençon in December 1774. [100] Louis XVIII took a large interest in the goings-on of the Congress of Vienna (set up to redraw the map of Europe after Napoleon's demise). [63], Louis XVIII was forced to abandon Verona when Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the Republic of Venice in 1796. He spent twenty-three years in exile: during the French Revolution and the First French Empire (1791–1814), and during the Hundred Days. Louis Stanislas and his brother, the Count of Artois, served as godfathers by proxy for Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, the Queen's brother. with Wellington's troops. His stay at Gosfield Hall did not last long; he soon moved to Hartwell House in Buckinghamshire, where over one hundred courtiers were housed. King Louis arrived at Cambrai on 26 June, where he released a proclamation stating that those who served the Emperor in the Hundred Days would not be persecuted, except for the "instigators". Brienne conceded defeat in July and agreed to a convocation of the Estates-General to meet in 1789. [52], The Royal Family was forced to leave the palace at Versailles on the day after the Women's March on Versailles, 5 October 1789. On 11 April, five days after the French Senate had invited Louis to resume the throne of France, Napoleon I abdicated. Le roi et le comte de Mirabeau (23 juin 1789) Partager. The expedition failed miserably, and Napoleon was forced to retreat with an army in tatters. Marie Joséphine (as she was known in France) was a daughter of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy (later King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia), and his wife Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain. The Chamber of Deputies proposed amending Salic law to allow the Duchess of Angoulême to accede to the throne. [20] Louis Stanislas did impregnate his wife in 1774, having conquered his aversion. Updates? [21] A second pregnancy in 1781 also miscarried, and the marriage remained childless. Queen Marie Joséphine died on 13 November 1810. [61], The young King, still a minor, died in June 1795. These individuals now effectively had two votes. The French line of succession upon the death of Louis XVIII in 1824. The Royal Council, an informal group of ministers that advised Louis, was dissolved and replaced by a tighter knit privy council, the "Ministère de Roi". The in-person ceremony was conducted on 14 May at the Palace of Versailles. The King was invested with executive powers and had “legislative initiative,” whereas a largely advisory parliament voted on laws and approved the budget. During the summer of 1815, he and his ministry embarked on a series of reforms. [64], Louis XVIII had been vying for the custody of his niece Marie-Thérèse since her release from the Temple Tower in December 1795. [127], In 1818, the Chambers passed a military law that increased the size of the army by over 100,000. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. She had been staying in Vienna with her Habsburg relatives since January 1796. [139], Louis XVIII's health began to fail in the spring of 1824.

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